How Food Spoil?

Life is everywhere! It is there to grow and populate, and it needs food to do these. Microbes change their environment during growth. These changes could easily be noticed since they are generally sensorial, i.e., bad smell, softening, darkening. Common microbes responsible for food spoilage are fungi and bacteria. Fungi are easy to grow in many conditions since they are stronger and can tolerate a wider range of acidity and humidity. Initially, microbes are present in the air to settle on surfaces.

When food is left in a non-sterile open space, organisms recognize them through certain chemical compounds/signals (odors), and the invasion begins. Organisms secrete enzymes to the environment to digest complex molecules and ingest them. As this process continues, organisms release waste products, and also growth is accompanied by toxic substances to disrupt competing species. Hence, toxins make us sick. Some make us mildly ill, and some may kill us! Common toxins are neurotoxins(targeting nerve system) and enterotoxins(targeting intestines).