Novel Foods

Along with globalization and population growth, searches for new food sources were started all over the world by using new technologies. For example, omega 3 is an essential fatty acid for the human body and is found in limited amounts in certain foods. For this reason, food scientists continue their research to produce oils rich in omega-three fatty acids. 

In its new definition, the foods that have not been used a significant degree in the EU before 15 May 1997 are classified as "Novel Food" and require permission to use. Novel foods are enhanced, innovative, futuristic for food science and technology (de Boer, & Bast,2018). They are produced by using new technologies and production processes. They can be reduced sugar, salt, functional foods that can provide human health to get better, and the food within high protein content. Nowadays, trends are shaping as original or better-quality production, such as organic farming, 3D printing technology, and genetic modification (Royzman et al.,2017).

For example, new foods such as phytosterols can be used to reduce cholesterol, and traditional foods (chia seeds or baobab) can also be categorized under that topic. Food that can be produced by using new technologies is also accepted, such as bread treated with UV to increase the Vitamin D level. The other is meat alternatives that one of the best options to satisfy the amino acid needs. Novel food offered meat alternatives, qua insects, and jellyfish (Mancini et al. 2019). They mimic the flavor and the texture of the meat entirely; in this way, they satisfy the consumer need.

Foods that require new production processes and also modern technologies are classified in this case. New food technologies may refer to improvements in packaging, which is a crucial global sector in the food industry. A proper packaging technique starts from giving the right information about food’s authenticity, contents, use, consumption-date expiration. It must need all kinds of nutritional properties of the product. Apart from that, it leads to preserving food products. Active and intelligent packaging systems are being applied to novel foods to protect them. The addition of oxygen absorbers can be one of the dynamic methods. It keeps moisture level constant, and it extends consumption-date expiration. Also, ethanol is used as a generator to increase the effectiveness of food packets.

Furthermore, vacuuming is used to protect the texture of food. Modified atmosphere packaging is another method for food packaging, which is being launched on all EU markets nearly. The way demonstrates that intelligent packaging is a tool for the quality of novel foods. Consequently, it can be clearly said that novel foods require active packaging techniques, and it has a significant role in the food supply chain.

Unfortunately, they sometimes cause a problem for human health, since novel protein which sensitives novo and reactive cross. Sensitization can happen mainly in two ways, which can be occurred orally via the gastrointestinal tract such as peanuts and via the respiratory tract such as pollen allergens (Valenta et al.,2015). However, this complication can occur in non-novel foods.