The Industrial Usage of Titanium Dioxide

 The Industrial Usage of Titanium Dioxide


With the development of technology, the food industry falls into step with these applications and bring up words like 'nanoparticles' to the literature. Titanium dioxide is one of the names that we heard together with them. The nanoparticle is defined for the particles which sized between 1-100 nm. TiO2 is known as a chemical substance with extremely stable chemical and physical properties, poorly soluble, and low toxicity. It is used for a brightener, preventing premature deterioration, and longing the shelf life in the candies, gums, beverages, supplements, and medicines.[1]  It can also be used in vegan and vegetarian products because it is not derived from any animal product.[2] The European Union(EU) nominates it, and there is no limitation by the EU for its usage. Food and Drug Administration(FDA) has approved the substance as a food additive, and the amount used in products must not exceed 1% of the total mass of the product according to the FDA.[3] 


The requirements of the FDA are as follows;


-   The color additive titanium dioxide is synthetically prepared TiO2, free from admixture with other substances.


-   Color additive mixtures for food use made with titanium dioxide may contain only those diluents that are suitable and that are listed in this subpart as safe in color additive mixtures for coloring foods, and the following: Silicon dioxide, SiO2 and/or aluminum oxide, Al2 O3, as dispersing aids--not more than 2 percent total.


-   The following elements should not be more than;


-   Lead (as Pb), 10 parts per million.

-   Arsenic (as As),  1 part per million.

-   Antimony (as Sb),  2 parts per million.

-   Mercury (as Hg), 1 part per million.


-   Loss on ignition at 800 deg. C. (after drying for 3 hours at 105 deg. C.), not more than 0.5 percent.

 -   Water-soluble substances, not more than 0.3 percent.

 -   Acid soluble substances, not more than 0.5 percent.

 -   TiO2, not less than 99.0 percent after drying for 3 hours at 105 deg. C.[4]




 Titanium Dioxide Nano Particles


It has been observed that titanium dioxide, which generally has large particles, is used as nanoparticles in most foods, and it has been observed that these titanium dioxide nanoparticles have different physical and chemical properties due to their smaller size and greater surface area. Because of its high refractive index, titanium dioxide nanoparticles provide high-efficiency whiteness and opacity even with a small amount of use and provide advantages such as high coating ability and slipperiness. TiO2 nanoparticles contribute antibacterial quality in the food packaging applications with the help of its photocatalytic activity. At the same time, it creates unique characteristics such as a high absorption rate and high bioactivity. Although they have the same chemical content, TiO2 nanoparticles use in the market is increasing exponentially, as their use has become more attractive than fine grade titanium dioxide due to the aforementioned advantages.[5]


CONTENT: Reyyan Nur Baloğulları






 3.   Zhangjian Chen, Shuo Han, Shupei Zhou, Huimin Feng, Ying Liu, Guang Jia,

Review of health safety aspects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food application, NanoImpact, Volume 18, 2020, 100224, ISSN 2452-0748, (


 5. C.O. Hendren, X. Mesnard, J. Droege, M.R. Wiesner

Estimating production data for five engineered nanomaterials as a basis for exposure assessment

Environmental Science & Technology, 45 (2011), pp. 2562-2569, 10.1021/es103300g