What Color Should Butter Be?



Butter is a dairy product that has a great place in human nutrition by its unique and pleasant taste. Besides, It is easily digestible and an essential source of energy. The raw material of butter is milk fat, and the rest consists of water, milk sugar, minerals, cholesterol, water-soluble vitamins, acids, flavors and proteins that come from milk.

 

The fact that milk fat is rich in conjugated linoleic acid increases the importance of butter. The physical property of butter is originated from fatty acids with different chain lengths and different saturation degrees. It is indispensable in the food industry with the caloric value of approximately 740 kcal/100 grams. Also, butter is known as the fat with the highest protein content. (1,2)

 


 

 

Annatto Extract: The annatto, which is a yellow-(red)orange carotenoid, is obtained from the seeds of a tree called Bixa orellana. This plant generally grows in tropical countries such as Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Ecuador. The color substance is obtained from the seed coat of the plant. Although bixin is soluble in fat, its derivative called norbixin is soluble in water (Norbixin = carotenoid bixin). It is generally added as the diluted extract form in butter, margarine, corn oil and salad mayonnaise. Its use is relatively economical by comparison with β- carotene. (6)

 Figure 1: Annatto



 

Sensory analysis testing on butter is made relative to the color, taste and aroma, structure and appearance of butter. Well-processed and preserved butter has a pleasant taste and aroma. The taste and smell of butter is an effective indicator of how it is processed and how it is stored. Butter takes its unique color from the milk fat in the cream. For this reason, the quality of the milk is the most critical point of butter-making and the color of butter. If the butter is made of cow's milk, it should have a creamy or yellowish color. If the color is too light or dark, that is not a desirable case. In order to prevent the color change of butter due to seasonal changes, plant-based carotene and annatto, and mineral-based yellow AB (benzeneazo-B-naphthylamine), yellow OB (ortho-tolueneazo-B-naphtylamine) dyes are used. The common feature of these dyes is that they can dissolve in lipids. The color of the butter should be uniform throughout the whole mass. (4.5)

 

The annatto, which is a yellow-(red)orange carotenoid, is obtained from the seeds of a tree called Bixa orellana. This plant generally grows in tropical countries such as Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Ecuador. The color substance is obtained from the seed coat of the plant. Although bixin is soluble in fat, its derivative called norbixin is soluble in water (Norbixin = carotenoid bixin). It is generally added as the diluted extract form in butter, margarine, corn oil and salad mayonnaise. Its use is relatively economical by comparison with β- carotene. (6)

 

While looking at the EU regulations; E 160b Anatto, Biksin, Norbiksin additive (excluding reduced-fat butter) is permitted to use 10 mg/kg in butter. (3)

As a result; The cream or yellowish color of the butter is of prime importance as a quality parameter. It is not desired to have a color that is too light (white) or too dark. Changes in milk due to seasonal feeding of animals may also affect butter color. The animal diet changes seasonally and various feed consumption can be given as the reason for these changes. The color of the butter is also affected by the low cellulose composition in such fresh feed consumed by cows, and the increase in milk yield accompanied by lower milk fat ratio. In such cases, vegetable and mineral-based food dyes can be used at the specified levels. (4,5,7)

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This article is originally posted on www.gidabilgi.com 👈🏻 .

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CONTENT: Özge YÜKSEL

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TRANSLATION: Eren BAŞDEMİR

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REFERENCES


1.    1.  ÇAKMAKÇI, S., ÇELİK, K., ERTEM, H., & ÇALIŞKAN, H. (2020). TEREYAĞI OLARAK SATILAN YAĞLARDA BAZI HİLELER VE KALİTE ÖZELLİKLERİNİN TESPİTİ: Erzurum ÖRNEĞİ. GIDA / THE JOURNAL OF FOOD, 800-813. doi:10.15237/gida.gd20053

 

2.   2.   KARDİL U. , (2016). BİTKİ ÖZÜTLERİ VE DOĞAL ÜRÜNLERİN TEREYAĞININ BOZUNMASINI ÖNLEYİCİ OLARAK KULLANILMALARI . YÜKSEK LİSANS TEZİ , KARADENİZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ FEN BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ, TRABZON.

 

3.   3.   Tard, A. (2017). Exposure assessment of annatto colouring principles bixin and norbixin (E 160b) when used as food additives. EFSA Journal, 15(8). doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2.17.4966

 

4.    4. Retrieved from https://cv.ankara.edu.tr/duzenleme/kisisel/dosyalar/29022016172949

 

5.    5. Retrieved from https://akademik.adu.edu.tr/myo/cine/webfolders/File/ders%20notlari/Sut%20ve%20Urunleri%20Analizleri

 

6.    6. ATLI B. , (2010). GIDA BOYALARI , YÜKSEK LİSANS TEZİ , NAMIK KEMAL ÜNİVERSİTESİ FEN BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ, TEKİRDAĞ.

 

7.    7. Retrieved from https://www.tarimorman.gov.tr/HAYGEM/Belgeler/Hayvanc%C4%B1l%C4%B1k/B%C3%BCy%C3%BCkba%C5%9F%20Hayvanc%C4%B1l%C4%B1k/2019%20Y%C4%B1l%C4%B1/Buyukbas_Hayvan_Yetistiriciligi

 

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